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Art of Faith Clip #2 - Christianity

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AliveMind on Aug 14, 2009 Featured Locations for Christianity St. Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai • Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna • Durham Cathedral Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres • St. Peter…More
AliveMind on Aug 14, 2009 Featured Locations for Christianity
St. Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai • Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna • Durham Cathedral
Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres • St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican Cit...
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The Basilica di San Vitale in Ravenna dates from the mid-6th century and contains what are probably the finest Byzantine mosaics in the western world.
History
Construction of San Vitale Basilica was initiated by Ecclesius, Bishop of Ravenna, shortly after a trip to Byzantium with Pope John in 525. The following year, Amalasuntha succeeded her father Theodoric as ruler of the Goths and of …More
The Basilica di San Vitale in Ravenna dates from the mid-6th century and contains what are probably the finest Byzantine mosaics in the western world.
History
Construction of San Vitale Basilica was initiated by Ecclesius, Bishop of Ravenna, shortly after a trip to Byzantium with Pope John in 525. The following year, Amalasuntha succeeded her father Theodoric as ruler of the Goths and of Ravenna; both rulers were Arian but she was more tolerant of Catholics than he had been.
Construction on San Vitale Basilica began in 526 on the site of the martyrdom of St. Vitalis. The church was almost entirely funded by a single wealthy individual called Julianus Argentarius. This otherwise unknown figure is thought to have been a private banker of Ravenna or perhaps a royal envoy of Justinian, sent to prepare the way for the Byzantine conquest.
The Byzantines took Ravenna in 540 and the basilica that was begun under the Goths was finished under Byzantine rule, in 548. It was consecrated by Maximian, the first Archbishop of Ravenna. Nearly all of what can be seen today, including the splendid mosaics, dates from this early period.
What to See
Exterior
San Vitale is a small domed church in the Byzantine architectural style. It has an octagonal plan, with a two-story ambulatory enclosing a central space beneath a great cupola. Attached at an angle to the west side is an entrance porch or narthex while a small choir and apse extends to the east.
Interior
The great cupola is decorated with uninteresting 18th-century murals, but the remainder of the interior is fully Byzantine and provides an authentic atmosphere of antiquity. And most famously, the ceilings of the choir and apse glitter with magnificent Byzantine mosaics in green and gold.
Presbytery Mosaics
The arch that marks the entrance into the presbytery is decorated with large mosaic medallions of Christ (with beard), the Twelve Apostles, and two other saints who are probably Gervasius and Protasius, sons of St. Vitalus. Each apostle has a different appearance and hairstyle - don't miss the Einstein-like hair on St. Andrew! Surrounding the medallions are pairs of dolphins with their tails crossed, globes and crosses.
The presbytery (a.k.a. sanctuary or choir) is fully decorated with beautiful mosaics on the walls and ceiling. Set against a naturalistic background of plants and animals, the mosaic scenes relate to the Eucharist service conducted at the high altar. After consecrating the bread and the wine, the priest prayed:
"Look upon these with favorable and gracious countenance and accept them, as you accepted the gifts of your just servant Abel and the sacrifice of our Patriarch Abraham and that which your High Priest Melchizedek offered to you, a holy sacrifice, an unspotted victim."
Left Wall of Presbytery
In a lunette on the left wall are two scenes from the life of Abraham. On the left, his wife Sarah waits in the doorway as Abraham brings a calf to the three mysterious guests (seen by Christians as foreshadowing the Trinity), who sit at a table in the center. On the right is his near-sacrifice of his son Isaac in obedience to God's will.
The area left of the lunette depicts the Prophet Jeremiah; while the right shows Moses ascending Mt. Sinai with the Twelve Tribes of Israel grouped around Aaron below (right). Moses is shown beardless in all three appearances in the presbytery, like Christ in the apse.
The upper level of the left wall has full-length figures of two evangelists and their symbols: John with his eagle (left) and Luke with his ox (right). Below their feet are ducks and other water fowl.
Right Wall of Presbytery
The lunette on the right wall centers on a large altar, a visual parallel to the table on the opposite wall. Here Abel (left) and Melchizedek (right) offer their sacrifices to God. Abel offers a spotless lamb (Genesis 4:4) and Melchizedek offers bread (Genesis 14:18). The area left of the lunette shows Moses watching the flocks of his father-in-law (below) and untying his sandals before the burning bush (above). On the right is the Prophet Isaiah.
As on the other side, the side panels of the upper level depict two evangelists: Matthew (with winged man symbol) and Mark (with lion symbol). They are depicted against a grassy landscape with aquatic creatures, including a heron and a tortoise, beneath their feet.
Vault and Apse Mosaics
The presbytery vault is richly decorated with mosaics in green, blue and gold, with vine tendrils and small animals. Each of the four sections of the vault has a standing angel in a white robe, who together support a central medallion of the Lamb of God against the backdrop of a starry sky.
Above the arch on the back wall of the presbytery are two flying angels holding a medallion with eight rays projecting from an Alpha, flanked by the City of Jerusalem (representing the Jewish Church) and the City of Bethlehem (representing the Gentile Church).
San Vitale's apse mosaic dates from 526 to 547 AD. It depicts a youthful, clean-shaven Christ the Redeemer sitting on the sphere of the world, flanked by San Vitale (who is being handed a martyr's crown), two angels, and Bishop Ecclesius, who founded the church.
The left wall has a mosaic of Emperor Justinian (r. 527-65) and his entourage. Justinian was a great lawgiver and one of the most powerful Byzantine emperors. He stands in the center of the mosaic, wearing imperial purple and holding a large gold paten, the plate on which the bread is placed for Mass. To his left is Maximian, Archbishop of Ravenna, holding a jeweled cross. Some of the other men hold objects as well, including a censer, an ornate book, and a soldier's shield displaying Christ's monogram, the Chi-Rho.
The right wall bears a mosaic of Empress Theodora, courtesan, actress, and wife of Justinian, with her court. Corresponding to Justinian's paten, the empress holds the cup of communion. "Embroidered" onto her robe is a small depiction of the Three Magi, indicating the intention to associate themselves, as many Christian rulers have, with the biblical kings who brought gifts to the Christ Child.
Quick Facts
Site Information
Names:
San Vitale Basilica; Basilica of St. Vitalus
Location:
Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
Faith:
Christianity
Denomination:
Catholic
Dedication:
St. Vitalus
Category:
Churches; World Heritage Sites
Architecture:
Byzantine, Paleochristian
Date:
526-48
Features:
Byzantine Mosaics
Status:
active
Photo gallery:
San Vitale Basilica Photo Gallery
Visitor Information
Address:
Via San Vitale 17, Ravenna, Italy
Coordinates:
44.420686° N, 12.196112° E (view on Google Maps)
Lodging:
View hotels near this location
Phone:
0544-219938
Public transport:
Bus: 1 or 11
Opening hours:
Apr-Sept daily 9am-7pm
Mar and Oct daily 9am-5:30pm
Nov-Feb daily 9:30am-4:30pm
Cost:
€6.50
www.sacred-destinations.com/italy/ravenna-san-vitale